FreeTDS configuration

pymssql uses FreeTDS package to connect to SQL Server instances. You have to tell it how to find your database servers. The most basic info is host name, port number, and protocol version to use.

The system-wide FreeTDS configuration file is /etc/freetds.conf or C:\freetds.conf, depending upon your system. It is also possible to use a user specific configuration file, which is $HOME/.freetds.conf on Linux and %APPDATA%\.freetds.conf on Windows. Suggested contents to start with is at least:

    port = 1433
    tds version = 7.0

With this config you will be able to enter just the hostname to pymssql.connect() and _mssql.connect():

import pymssql
connection = pymssql.connect(server='mydbserver', ...)

Otherwise you will have to enter the portname as in:

connection = pymssql.connect(server='mydbserver:1433', ...)

To connect to instance other than the default, you have to know either the instance name or port number on which the instance listens:

connection = pymssql.connect(server='mydbserver\\myinstancename', ...)
# or by port number (suppose you confirmed that this instance is on port 1237)
connection = pymssql.connect(server='mydbserver:1237', ...)

Please see also the pymssql module reference, _mssql module reference, and FAQ pages.

For more information on configuring FreeTDS please go to

Testing the connection

If you’re sure that your server is reachable, but pymssql for some reason don’t let you connect, you can check the connection with tsql utility which is part of FreeTDS package:

$ tsql
Usage:  tsql [-S <server> | -H <hostname> -p <port>] -U <username> [-P <password>] [-I <config file>] [-o <options>] [-t delim] [-r delim] [-D database]
$ tsql -S mydbserver -U user


Use the above form if and only if you specified server alias for mydbserver in freetds.conf. Otherwise use the host/port notation:

$ tsql -H mydbserver -p 1433 -U user

You’ll be prompted for a password and if the connection succeeds, you’ll see the SQL prompt:


You can then enter queries and terminate the session with exit.

If the connection fails, tsql utility will display appropriate message.